About emphysema

What is emphysema?

Emphysema is a lung condition that commonly develops after a prolonged period of smoking. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are both parts of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) group of lung disorders (copd). copd refers to a collection of lung disorders that make breathing difficult and worsen over time. Chronic bronchitis is the other major kind of copd. Most patients with copd have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, however, the severity of each form might be variable from person to person. Emphysema is a lung disorder in which the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) are damaged. Alveoli are small, thin-walled air sacs found in clusters at the end of bronchial tubes deep within the lungs. In healthy lungs, there are roughly 300 million alveoli. The alveoli extend as you breathe in air, pulling oxygen in and transferring it to the blood. When you exhale, your alveoli contract, allowing carbon dioxide to escape your body.The alveoli and lung tissue are damaged when emphysema develops. The alveoli can no longer sustain the bronchial tubes due to this injury. The tubes collapse, resulting in an "obstruction" (a blockage), trapping air inside the lungs. Some patients may develop a barrel-chested appearance as a result of too much air trapped in their lungs. Additionally, because there are fewer alveoli, less oxygen may enter the bloodstream.Once developed, emphysema can not be reversed. This is why quitting smoking or refraining from developing the habit is vital to prevent emphysema. Some people might have emphysema and yet be unaware. Shortness of breath and coughing are two of the earliest symptoms. The condition worsens until breathing becomes difficult all of the time, even whilst resting.



What are the symptoms for emphysema?

Prolonged exposure to irritants that harm your lungs and airways is the most common cause of emphysema. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. Tobacco smoke from a pipe, cigar, or other sort of tobacco too can cause emphysema, especially if inhaled. Emphysema can be exacerbated by exposure to other inhaled irritants. Secondhand smoking, air pollution, and chemical fumes or dusts from the surroundings or workplace are examples of these. Rarely, a genetic disorder known as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can contribute to the development of emphysema. Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and increased Mucus production are all symptoms of emphysema. Symptoms may not appear for quite a while until the lung tissue has been destroyed to a 50% or greater extent. Thus, most might be completely unaware of the fact that they have emphysema.Shortness of breath and coughing, the two of the earliest symptoms, occur most frequently after exercise or physical activity, so might be mistaken for other conditions. Pneumonia, bronchitis, and other lung infections are more common in people who develop emphysema. If any of the following symptoms appear, consult your doctor: Breathing problems, especially when doing modest exercise or climbing stairs, Feeling of not being able to get enough air on a regular basis, Cough that lasts a long time or "smoker's cough", Wheezing,Mucus production throughout time, Continual exhaustion. As the emphysema worsens, one might also notice the severity via the following symptoms: Appetite loss, Depression, Sleep issues, Blue lips or nail beds, Fatigue, Frequent lung infections, Headaches in the morning, Loss of weight



What are the causes for emphysema?

Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder also popularly known as copd. Over time, the lungs get damaged. Usually, this lung disease develops after several years of smoking. In 2018, according to a survey conducted by the American Lungs Association, 2 million people had Emphysema. In Emphysema, the wall sacs of the alveoli are damaged. The air gets trapped in the lungs due to the collapse of air sacs. This leads to shortness of breath. Emphysema is not gendered specific; however, males have a higher chance of getting dead due to Emphysema. However, in recent years these gaps have been continuously decreasing.

1) Smoking: All studies have suggested that smoking is the primary cause of Emphysema. The more you smoke, the more chance you have of contacting Emphysema. About 90% of Emphysema is due to smoking. When a person smokes, the smoke from the cigarette narrows the air passages, swells the air tubes, enlarges the lungs, and destroys the lung tissues. It is still unknown how exactly cigarette destroys the sac lining. Not just tobacco, marijuana smoking also leads to Emphysema.

2) Getting Exposed To A Polluted Environment: Not constantly who smokes gets Emphysema; sometimes, people around a smoker or in a smoking zone but might be non-smokers also can develop Emphysema. Polluted air, fumes, smoke, dust, and chemicals can also lead to Emphysema.

3) Alpha-1 Deficiency: Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also known as AAT, is a natural protein found in the human body that protects the elastic structure of the lungs. Due to genetic reasons, some people have AAT deficiency. AAT deficiency makes the WBC damage the lungs. Such people are at risk of developing Emphysema. Even people with a history of respiratory problems have a high chance of getting Emphysema.Although the leading cause of this disease is smoking, non-smokers also have an opportunity to get Emphysema. 25% of people with Emphysema have never smoked. According to a study done in 2020, people with small airways in proportion to their lung size have a higher chance of getting emphysema than people with large airways. Remember that Emphysema is not contagious; it can never spread from one person to another.



What are the treatments for emphysema?

Are you having shortness of breath? Then you might have Emphysema. Emphysema is a lung condition that causes breathlessness. The air sacs in the alveoli get damaged, and their inner walls rupture. Emphysema can even lead to chronic bronchitis. While there are treatments for Emphysema, be sure that no medicine can reverse the damage. Treatment only slows the progression, prevents complication, provides relief from the disease's symptoms, and contains it. Below are some treatments for Emphysema.

1) Change In The Lifestyle: The first and golden rule to get relief from Emphysema is to quit smoking. Tobacco is the primary cause of Emphysema, and continuing smoking will only further damage the condition of the lungs. Lifestyle matters a lot in the treatment of Emphysema. Also, if possible, avoid places that are polluted. Change in lifestyle means quitting smoking, having a healthy diet, drinking plenty of water, etc.

2) Oxygen Therapy: For people with low oxygen levels, oxygen therapy can make them breathe better. Supplemental oxygen comes in handy and is helpful for people who require immediate oxygen. Various oxygen devices, such as oxygen cylinders and compactable oxygen kits, are there. Generally, oxygen is administered to a person via a narrow tube that fits into the nostril. A person with low oxygen suffering from Emphysema will require oxygen at least every 16 hours.

3) Medication: Medication for Emphysema depends on the severity of the symptoms. Bronchodilators help get relief from shortness of breath and continuous coughing by widening the air passages in the lungs. Bronchodilators can either be inhaled or taken orally. Steroids like fluticasone are meant to be inhaled as an aerosol spray, help with asthma and bronchitis, and reduce inflammation. However, steroids have adverse effects and cause complications. Always ensure to consult with a physician before taking steroids. For people with acute bronchitis, antibiotics like Azithromycin can reduce exacerbations. Also, vaccines reduce the chances of getting Emphysema.

4) Surgery: For surgery, the doctor needs to check the severity of Emphysema. People with severe Emphysema might need to undergo surgery. In Bullectomy surgery, the damaged lung tissue is removed, and the large spaces in the lungs are reduced. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction, also termed BLVR, is a new treatment developed for Emphysema. It has a ubiquitous invasive procedure where endobronchial valves are implanted in the lungs’ airways. These valves ensure the better functioning of the lungs. A lung transplant is also a way of treating people with Severe Emphysema.



What are the risk factors for emphysema?

Emphysema is a subtype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd). copd is a group of respiratory illnesses that makes it difficult to breathe and progressively worsen. People with emphysema have damaged air sacs in their lungs (alveoli).Risk Factors for EmphysemaA risk factor raises your chances of contracting an illness or developing a condition. Some of the risk factors of emphysema are mentioned below:

1) Smoking: Cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor for emphysema. Cigarette smoking is responsible for nearly all instances of copd. copd does not affect all smokers, since it might be caused by factors in your environment or your genetic make-up. Due to men's proclivity for smoking, men are more likely to develop emphysema than women. However, the prevalence of emphysema among women is on the rise.

2) Genetic Factor: copd is most commonly found in older people who have smoked for a long time. One kind of emphysema, however, has a hereditary component, it is a trait that runs through families. This kind of copd is caused by a genetic blood component deficit. It's referred to as an alpha-1-protease inhibitor (alpha-1-antitrypsin [AAT]). If you have close relatives who acquired copd in their 30s or 40s, you may be at a higher risk of developing this kind of copd.

3) Exposure to Environmental and Occupational Pollutants: copd is amplified by long-term exposure to dust, gasses, chemicals, and biofuels. Inhalation of allergens destroys the lungs over time, and the tissue deterioration that defines emphysema takes a long time to develop. Smoke from burning wood, charcoal, and agricultural waste are some  examples.

4) Medical Conditions: People with asthma or infections are more prone to developing inflammation and tissue damage in their lungs.People with this impairment are more likely to acquire emphysema at a very young age.



Is there a cure/medications for emphysema?

Emphysema is one of three disorders classified as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) (copd). Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive asthma are the other two subtypes. Once lung damage has been done, there is no definitive cure for emphysema, although therapies can alleviate symptoms and reduce additional lung damage. Medications: Bronchodilators are drugs that increase airflow by relaxing the bronchial muscles. Bronchodilators can be used to provide immediate relief from symptoms or be used on a daily basis. Bronchodilators are available in a variety of forms, including metered dosage and powder inhalers, as well as nebulizer devices (which convert a liquid to an aerosol). Emphysema can also be treated with steroids. Corticosteroids may be prescribed in the form of an inhaler; they work by lowering inflammation and thereby alleviating discomfort.A bronchodilator and a corticosteroid are combined in certain common inhalers, such as Advair. Oral treatments for emphysema:Emphysema patients may be prescribed an oral steroid such as prednisone in addition to using an inhaler. Antibiotics are also often used to treat infections that can lead to life-threatening illnesses such as pneumonia. Expectorants are drugs that help clear mucus from the lungs. Oxygen Supplications:Many patients with emphysema will require regular oxygen therapy at some point. The requirement for oxygen frequently increases as the illness advances, and some people will eventually require constant oxygen. Oxygen supplications are essential for emphysema patients as the illness advances. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery:Your doctor may prescribe lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) or a lung transplant if your emphysema has progressed. LVRS, also known as reduction pneumoplasty, decreases lung capacity to alleviate symptoms. In LVRS, a surgeon reduces the lung capacity by removing the emphysema-affected regions. 



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