Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) may exist without apparent symptoms. Obvious symptoms tend to occur when recurrent episodes of bleeding or blood clot formation lead either to seizures, for upper lobe CCMs, or to focal or vision issues, for CCMs in the brainstem, basal ganglia and spinal cord.
Generally, signs and symptoms of CCMs may include weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking, difficulty understanding others, unsteadiness, vision changes or severe headache. Seizures also can occur, and neurological issues can progressively worsen over time with recurrent bleeding (hemorrhage). Repeat bleeding can occur soon after an initial bleed or much later, or a repeat bleed may never occur.
When to see a doctor
Seek medical help immediately if you experience any symptoms of seizure, or signs and symptoms that suggest brain hemorrhage, such as:
- Sudden, severe headache
- Weakness or numbness on one side of the body
- Difficulties in speaking or understanding speech
- Loss of vision
- Double vision
- Balance difficulties