Disease: Chemo brain


    Chemo brain is a common term used by cancer survivors to describe thinking and memory problems that can occur after cancer treatment. Chemo brain can also be called chemo fog, chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment or cognitive dysfunction.

    Though chemo brain is a widely used term, it's misleading. It's unlikely that chemotherapy is the sole cause of concentration and memory problems in cancer survivors. Researchers are working to understand the memory changes that people with cancer experience.

    Despite the many questions, it's clear that the memory problems commonly called chemo brain can be a frustrating and debilitating side effect of cancer and its treatment. More study is needed to understand this condition.

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com


    Signs and symptoms of chemo brain may include the following:

    • Being unusually disorganized
    • Confusion
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Difficulty finding the right word
    • Difficulty learning new skills
    • Difficulty multitasking
    • Fatigue
    • Feeling of mental fogginess
    • Short attention span
    • Short-term memory problems
    • Taking longer than usual to complete routine tasks
    • Trouble with verbal memory, such as remembering a conversation
    • Trouble with visual memory, such as recalling an image or list of words

    When to see a doctor

    If you experience troubling memory or thinking problems, make an appointment with your doctor. Keep a journal of your signs and symptoms so that your doctor can better understand how your memory problems are affecting your everyday life.

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com


    It's not clear what causes signs and symptoms of memory problems in cancer survivors.

    Cancer-related causes could include:


    • A cancer diagnosis can be quite stressful in itself and this can cause memory problems
    • Certain cancers can produce chemicals that affect memory

    Cancer treatments

    • Chemotherapy
    • Hormone therapy
    • Immunotherapy
    • Radiation therapy
    • Stem cell transplant
    • Surgery

    Complications of cancer treatment

    • Anemia
    • Fatigue
    • Infection
    • Menopause or other hormonal changes (caused by cancer treatment)
    • Nutritional deficiencies
    • Sleep problems, such as insomnia
    • Pain due to cancer treatments

    Emotional reactions to cancer diagnosis and treatment

    • Anxiety
    • Depression
    • Stress

    Other causes

    • Inherited susceptibility to chemo brain
    • Medications for other cancer-related signs and symptoms, such as pain medications
    • Recurrent cancer that has spread to the brain

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com


    There's no clear definition of chemo brain, so no tests exist to diagnose this condition. Cancer survivors who experience these symptoms often score in normal ranges on memory tests.

    Your doctor may recommend blood tests, brain scans or other tests to rule out other causes of memory problems. But if no apparent cause can be found for your symptoms, your doctor may refer you to a specialist who can help you cope with memory changes.

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com


    The severity and duration of the symptoms sometimes described as chemo brain differ from person to person. Some cancer survivors may return to work, but find tasks take extra concentration or time. Others will be unable to return to work.

    If you experience severe memory or concentration problems that make it difficult to do your job, tell your doctor. You may be referred to an occupational therapist, who can help you adjust to your current job or identify your strengths so that you may find a new job.

    In rare cases, people with memory and concentration problems are unable to work and must apply for disability benefits. Ask your health care team for a referral to an oncology social worker or a similar professional who can help you understand your options.

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com

    Alternative medicine

    No alternative treatments have been found to prevent or cure chemo brain. If you're interested in trying alternative treatments for your symptoms, discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

    Alternative treatments for other types of memory problems are also touted as helpful for chemo brain, such as:

    • Ginkgo. Supplements containing ginkgo leaves have shown some promise in treating age-related memory changes in older adults, but more study is needed. Ginkgo supplements are generally safe, but they can interfere with some common medications, including blood thinners. Talk to your doctor before beginning ginkgo supplements.
    • Vitamin E. Vitamin E may be beneficial for brain cells, but more study is needed. Vitamin E supplements are generally safe when taken in recommended doses, but they can interfere with common medications, including blood thinners and chemotherapy drugs. It may be easier and safer to choose foods that are high in vitamin E, such as vegetable oils and eggs.

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com

    Lifestyle and home remedies

    You can take steps to ease chemo brain symptoms on your own. For instance, try to:

    • Control what you can about your working environment. If noise and commotion are contributing to your distraction, try to find a quiet corner where you can concentrate. Soft music may help drown out other noises.
    • Prepare yourself for success. Before tackling a complicated task that requires concentration, take steps to ensure that you will have the best chance for success. Eat so you won't be distracted by hunger. Pick a time of day when you'll be the most alert. Get a good night's sleep. Have a plan so you know exactly what you'll need to do in order to complete your task.
    • Stay organized. Use calendars or planners to keep on task. That way you won't spend time wondering if you're forgetting an appointment or an item on your to-do list. Write everything down in your planner. Make organization a priority at home and at work, too. Having an organized work space means you can spend more time on tasks that you need to accomplish.
    • Clear your mind of distractions. When distracting thoughts pop up, write them down in your planner. Recording your thoughts will help to quickly clear them and ensure that you remember them later.
    • Take frequent breaks. Divide your tasks into manageable portions and take a break each time you complete one part. Give yourself a short rest so that you'll be able to continue later.
    • Exercise your brain. Try crossword puzzles or number games to exercise your brain. Take up a new hobby or master a new skill, such as learning to play a musical instrument or learning a language.
    • Exercise your body. Moderate exercise, such as brisk walking, can help you cope with stress, fatigue and depression. All can contribute to memory problems. If you haven't been active lately, get the OK from your doctor first.

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com

    Coping and support

    Chemo brain symptoms can be frustrating and debilitating. With time, you'll find ways to adapt so that concentration will become easier and memory problems may fade. Until then, there are ways to cope. Try to:

    • Understand that memory problems happen to everyone. Despite your best strategies for dealing with your memory changes, you'll still have the occasional lapse. It happens to everyone. While you may have little control over the cancer-treatment-related memory changes, you can control other causes of memory lapses that are common to everyone, such as being overly tired, distracted or disorganized.
    • Take time each day to relax. Stress can contribute to memory and concentration problems. Devote time each day to stress-relief activities, such as exercise, listening to music, meditation or writing in a journal.
    • Be honest with others about your symptoms. Be open and honest with the people who are close to you about your chemo brain symptoms. Explain your symptoms and also suggest ways friends and family can help. For instance, you might ask a friend to remind you of plans by both phone and email.

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com

    Risk factors

    Factors that may increase the risk of memory problems in cancer survivors include:

    • Brain cancer
    • Chemotherapy given directly to the central nervous system
    • Chemotherapy combined with whole-brain radiation
    • Higher doses of chemotherapy or radiation
    • Radiation therapy to the brain
    • Younger age at time of cancer diagnosis and treatment
    • Increasing age

    Source: http://www.mayoclinic.com

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